Posted at http://www.somewhereinblog.net/blog/akandablog/28730147
০৮ ই সেপ্টেম্বর, ২০০৭ রাত ১০:৩৩
তিনটি গুরুত্বপূর্ণ চুক্তি।
১। সিমলা চুক্তি। ১৯৭২ সালের ৩ জুলাই, সিমলাতে স্বাক্ষরীত হয়, ইন্দিরা গান্ধি ও ভুট্টর মধ্যে।
২। দিল্লী চুক্তি। ১৯৭৩ সালের ২৮ আগষ্ট, দিল্লীতে স্বাক্ষরীত হয়। পি. এন. হাক্সার, ইনডিয়ান প্রধান মন্ত্রির বিশেষ প্রতিনিধি ও আজিজ আহাম্মদ, প্রতিমন্ত্রি, পররাষ্ট্র ও প্রতিরক্ষা মন্ত্রনালয়, পাকিস্তান সরকার স্বাক্ষর করেন।
৩। ত্রিপক্ষিয় চুক্তি। ১৯৭৪ সালের ৯ এপ্রিল, দিল্লীতে স্বাক্ষরীত হয়। কামাল হোসেন, পররাষ্ট্রমন্ত্রি, বাংলাদেশ, স্বরণ সিং, পররাষ্ট্রমন্ত্রি, ইনডিয়া এবং আজিজ আহাম্মদ, প্রতিমন্ত্রি, পররাষ্ট্রমন্ত্রনালয় ও প্রতিরক্ষা মন্ত্রনালয়, পাকিস্তান স্বাক্ষর করেন।
আগামীতে এক এক করে চুক্তি তিনটির ইংরেজি পাঠ পোষ্ট করবো। অনুগ্রহ করে কেউ বাংলা অনুবাদ করে দিলে উপকৃত হবো।
প্রথম বাধা সিমলা চুক্তি। ১৯৭২ সালের ৩ জুলাই, সিমলাতে স্বাক্ষরীত হয়, ইন্দিরা গান্ধি ও ভুট্টর মধ্যে।
সিমলা চুক্তির ইংরেজি ভার্সান দিচ্ছি। কেউ বাংলায় অনুবাদ করলে ভাল হয়।
Simla Agreement on Bilateral Relations between India and Pakistan signed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, and President of Pakistan, Z. A. Bhutto, in Simla on July 3, 1972.
The Government of India and the Government of Pakistan are resolved that the two countries put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have hitherto marred their relations and work for the promotion of a friendly and harmonious relationship and the establishment of durable peace in the subcontinent so that both countries may henceforth devote their resources and energies to the pressing task of advancing the welfare of their people.
In order to achieve this objective, the Government of India and the Government of Pakistan have agreed as follows:
(i) That the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations shall govern the relations between the two countries.
(ii) That the two countries are resolved to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations or by any other peaceful means mutually agreed upon between them. Pending the final settlement of any of the problems between the two countries, neither side shall unilaterally alter the situation and both shall prevent the organisation, assistance or encouragement of any acts detrimental to the maintenance of peace and harmonious relations.
(iii) That the prerequisite for reconciliation, good neighbourliness and durable peace between them is a commitment by both the countries to peaceful coexistence respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty and noninterference in each other's internal affairs, on the basis of equality and mutual benefit.
(iv) That the basic issues and causes of conflict which have bedeviled the relations between the two countries for the last 25 years shall be resolved by peaceful means.
(v) That they shall always respect each other's national unity, territorial integrity, political independence and sovereign equality.
(vi) That in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, they will refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of each other.
Both governments will take all steps within their power to prevent hostile propaganda directed against each other. Both countries will encourage the dissemination of such information as would promote the development of friendly relations between them.
In order progressively to restore and normalise relations between the two countries step by step, it was agreed that:
(i) Steps shall be taken to resume communications, postal, telegraphic, sea, land, including border posts, and air links, including over flights.
(ii) Appropriate steps shall be taken to promote travel facilities for the nationals of the other country.
(iii) Trade and cooperation in economic and other agreed fields will be resumed as far as possible.
(iv) Exchange in the fields of science and culture will be promoted.
In this connection delegations from the two countries will meet from time to time to work out the necessary details.
In order to initiate the process of the establishment of durable peace, both the governments agree that:
(i) Indian and Pakistani forces shall be withdrawn to their side of the international border.
(ii) In Jammu and Kashmir, the line of control resulting from the ceasefire of December 17, 1971, shall be respected by both sides without prejudice to the recognised position of either side. Neither side shall seek to alter it unilaterally, irrespective of mutual differences and legal interpretations. Both sides further undertake to refrain from the threat or the use of force in violation of this line.
(iii) The withdrawals shall commence upon entry into force of this agreement and shall be completed within a period of 30 days thereof.
This agreement will be subject to ratification by both countries in accordance with their respective constitutional procedures, and will come into force with effect from the date on which the instruments of ratification are exchanged.
Both governments agree that their respective heads will meet again at a mutually convenient time in the future and that in the meanwhile the representatives of the two sides will meet to discuss further the modalities and arrangements for the establishment of durable peace and normalisation of relations, including the questions of repatriation of prisoners of war and civilian internees, a final settlement of Jammu and Kashmir and the resumption of diplomatic relations.
দিল্লী চুক্তি। ১৯৭৩ সালের ২৮ আগষ্টে ইন্ডিয়া ও পাকিস্তানের মধ্যে ১৯৭১ সালের বিরোধের মানবিক সমাধানের জন্য, দিল্লীতে আরো একটি চুক্তি স্বাক্ষরীত হয়, যা দিল্লী চুক্তি নামে পরিচিত। পি. এন. হাক্সার, ইনডিয়ান প্রধান মন্ত্রির বিশেষ প্রতিনিধি ও আজিজ আহাম্মদ, প্রতিমন্ত্রি, পররাষ্ট্র ও প্রতিরক্ষা মন্ত্রনালয়, পাকিস্তান সরকার নিজ নিজ দেশের পক্ষে চুক্তিতে স্বাক্ষর করেন।
চুক্তিটি নিচের লিংকে দেয়া হল।
AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF PAKISTAN REGARDING REPATRIATION OF PERSONS.
Link : http://mea.gov.in/treatiesagreement/1973/chap490.htm
১৯৭৪ সালের ৯ এপ্রিল, দিল্লীতে বাংলাদেশ, পকিস্তান ও ইন্ডিয়ার মধ্যে একটি ত্রিপক্ষিয় চুক্তি স্বাক্ষরীত হয়। বাংলাদেশের পররাষ্ট্রমন্ত্রি কামাল হোসেন, ইনডিয়ার পররাষ্ট্রমন্ত্রি স্বরণ সিং এবং পাকিস্তান পররাষ্ট্রমন্ত্রনালয় ও প্রতিরক্ষা মন্ত্রনালয়ের প্রতিমন্ত্রি আজিজ আহাম্মদ নিজ নিজ সরকারের পক্ষে চুক্তিতে স্বাক্ষর করেন।
এই চুক্তির মাধ্যমেই ৭১ এর যুদ্ধ অপরাধি এবং সহযোগীদের বিচারের পথ চিরতরে রুদ্ধ হয়।
এই ত্রিপক্ষিয় চুক্তির পূর্ণ বিবরণ নিচে দিলাম। সম্মানিত পাঠকগণ এই চুক্তির ১৩, ১৪ এবং ১৫ ধারাগুলি খুব মনযোগ দিয়ে পড়বেন।
TEXT OF THE TRIPARTITE AGREEMENT OF
Following is the full text of tripartite agreement signed in New Delhi on 9 April 1974.
1. On 2 July 1972, the President of Pakistan and the Prime Minister of India signed an historic agreement at Simla under which they resolved that "the two countries put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have hitherto marred their relations and work for the promotion of a friendly and harmonious relationship and the establishment of durable peace in the subcontinent." The agreement also provided for the settlement of "their differences by any other peaceful means mutually agreed upon".
2. Bangladesh welcomed the Simla Agreement. The Prime Minister of Bangladesh strongly supported its objective of reconciliation, good neighborliness and establishment of durable peace in the subcontinent.
3. The humanitarian problems arising in the wake of the tragic event of 1971 constituted a major obstacle in the way of reconciliation and normalization among the countries of the subcontinent. In the absence of recognition, it was not possible to have tripartite talks to settle the humanitarian problems, as Bangladesh could not participate in such a meeting except on the basis of sovereign equality.
4. On 17 April 1973, India and Bangladesh took a major step forward to break the deadlock on the humanitarian issues by setting aside the political problem of recognition. In a declaration issued on that date, they said that they "are resolved to continue their efforts to reduce tension, promote friendly and harmonious relationship in the sub-continent and work together towards the establishment of a durable peace."
Inspired by this vision and "in the larger interest of reconciliation, peace and stability in the subcontinent", they jointly proposed that the problem of the detained and stranded persons should be resolved on humanitarian considerations through simultaneous repatriation of all such persons except those Pakistani prisoners of war who might be required by the Government of Bangladesh for trial on certain charges.
5. Following the declaration, there were a series of talks between India and Bangladesh and India and Pakistan. These talks resulted in an agreement at Delhi on 28 august 1973, between India and Pakistan with the concurrence of Bangladesh, which provided for a solution of the outstanding humanitarian problems.
6. In pursuance of this agreement, the process of three-way repatriation commenced on 19 September 1973. So far nearly three lakh persons have been repatriated which has generated an atmosphere of reconciliation and paved the way for normalization of relations in the sub-continent.
7. In February 1974, recognition took place thus facilitating the participation of Bangladesh in the tripartite meeting envisaged in the Delhi Agreement, on the basis of sovereign equality. Accordingly, Dr. Kamal Hossain, Foreign Minister of Government of Bangladesh, Mr. Swaran Singh, Minister of External affairs, Government of India, and Mr. Aziz Ahmed, Minister of State for Defense and Foreign Affairs of the Government of Pakistan, met in New Delhi from 5 April to 9 April 1974 and discussed the various issues mentioned in the Delhi Agreement, in particular the question of the 195 prisoners of war and the completion of the three-way process of repatriation involving Bangladesh and Pakistani prisoners of war in India.
8. The Ministers reviewed the progress of the three-way repatriation under the Delhi Agreement of 28 August 1973. They were gratified that such a large number of persons detained or stranded in the three countries had since reached their destinations.
9. The Ministers also considered steps that needed to be taken in order expeditiously to bring the process of three-way repatriation to a satisfactory conclusion.
10. The Indian side stated that the remaining Pakistani prisoners of war and civilian internees in India to be repatriated under the Delhi Agreement, numbering approximately 6,500, would be repatriated at the usual pace of a train on alternate days and the likely shortfall due to suspension of trains from 10 April to 19 April 1974, on account of the Kumbh mela, would be made up by running additional trains after April 19. It was thus hoped that the repatriation of prisoners of war would be completed by the end of April 1974.
11. The Pakistan side stated that the repatriation of Bangladesh nationals from Pakistan was approaching completion. The remaining Bangladesh nationals in Pakistan would also be repatriated without let or hindrance.
12. In respect of non-Bengalis in Bangladesh, the Pakistan side stated that the Government of Pakistan had already issued clearances for movement of Pakistanis in favour of those non-Bengalis who were either domiciled in former West Pakistan, were employees of the Central Government and their families or were members of the divided families, irrespective of their original domicile. The issuance of clearances to 25,000 persons who constitute hardship cases was also in progress.
The Pakistan side also reiterated that all those who fall under the first three categories would be received by Pakistan without any limit to numbers. In respect of persons whose applications had been rejected, the Government of Pakistan would, upon request, provide reasons why any particular case was rejected. Any aggrieved applicant could at a time, seek a review of his application provided he was able to supply new facts or further information to the Government of Pakistan in support of his contention that he qualified in one or other of the three categories. The claim of such persons would not be time-barred. In the event of the decision of review of a case being adverse, the Government of Pakistan and Bangladesh might seek to resolve it by mutual consultation.
13. The question of 195 Pakistani prisoners of war was discussed by the three Ministers in the context of the earnest desire of the Governments for reconciliation, peace and friendship in the sub-continent. The Foreign Minister of Bangladesh stated that the excesses and manifold crimes committed by those prisoners of war constituted, according to the relevant provisions of the UN General Assembly resolutions and international law, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide, and that there was universal consensus that persons charged with such crimes as 195 Pakistani prisons of war should be held to account and subjected to the due process of law. The Minister of State for Defense and Foreign Affairs of the Government of Pakistan said that his Government condemned and deeply regretted any crimes that may have been committed.
14. In this connection, the three Ministers noted that the matter should be viewed in the context of the determination of the three countries to continue resolutely to work for reconciliation. The Ministers further noted that following recognition, the Prime Minister of Pakistan had declared that he would visit Bangladesh in response to the invitation of the Prime Minister of Bangladesh and appealed to the people of Bangladesh to forgive and forget the mistakes of the past in order to promote reconciliation. Similarly, the Prime Minister of Bangladesh had declared with regard to the atrocities and destruction committed in Bangladesh in 1971, that he wanted the people to forget the past and to make a fresh start, stating that the people of Bangladesh knew how to forgive.
15. In the light of the foregoing and, in particular, having regard to the appeal of the Prime Minister of Pakistan to the people of Bangladesh to forgive and forget the mistakes of the past, the Foreign Minister of Bangladesh stated that the Government of Bangladesh had decided not to proceed with the trials as an act of clemency. It was agreed that the 195 prisoners of war might be repatriated to Pakistan along with the other prisoners of war now in the process of repatriation under the Delhi Agreement.
16. The Ministers expressed their conviction that the above agreements provide a firm basis for the resolution of the humanitarian problems arising out of the conflict of 1971. They reaffirmed the vital stake the 700 million people of the three countries have in peace and progress and reiterated the resolve of their Governments to work for the promotion of normalization of relations and the establishment of durable peace in the sub-continent.
Signed in New Delhi on 9 April 1974, in three originals, each of which is equally authentic.
Minister of Foreign Affairs, Government of Bangladesh
Minister of External Affairs, Government of India
(Aziz Ahmed) Minister of State for Defense and Foreign Affairs, Government of Pakistan.